SpringerOpen Newsletter

Receive periodic news and updates relating to SpringerOpen.

Open Access Research Article

Exploiting Diversity for Coverage Extension of Bluetooth-Based Mobile Services

Barbara M Masini1*, Andrea Conti2, Davide Dardari1 and Gianni Pasolini1

Author Affiliations

1 WiLab, IEIIT-BO/CNR, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, Bologna 40136, Italy

2 WiLab, ENDIF, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, Ferrara 44100, Italy

For all author emails, please log on.

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 2006, 2006:078954  doi:10.1155/WCN/2006/78954

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://jwcn.eurasipjournals.com/content/2006/1/078954


Received:21 October 2005
Revisions received:25 July 2006
Accepted:16 August 2006
Published:19 November 2006

© 2006 Masini et al.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This paper investigates the impact of diversity reception techniques on the performance of Bluetooth (BT) packet transmission in wireless channels with fast fading and shadowing to improve the coverage extension. We firstly derive a tight parametric exponential approximation for the instantaneous bit error probability (BEP) in additive white Gaussian noise with parameters dependent on GFSK modulation format according to the BT standard. Then, from this expression, we derive the mean block error probability (BLEP) for DH packets transmission in Rayleigh fading channel by adopting different diversity reception techniques, such as selection diversity (SD) and maximal ratio combining (MRC). In particular, the joint impact of the diversity order, the combining techniques and the block length on the BLEP, is shown. For both MRC and SD schemes, we also obtain a tight and invertible bound on the BLEP, that enables us to analytically evaluate the quality of service expressed in terms of outage probability in channel affected by fading and shadowing and, as a consequence, the impact of multiple antennas on the system coverage.

References

  1. http://www.vicom-project.it/

  2. Specification of the Bluetooth System. Core, Version 1.0 B (http://www), . bluetooth.com webcite

  3. S Zuerbes, W Stahl, K Matheus, J Haartsen, Radio network performance of Bluetooth. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '00), June 2000, New Orleans, La, USA 3, 1563–1567

  4. JC Haartsen, The Bluetooth radio system. IEEE Personal Communications 7(1), 28–36 (2000). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  5. G Pasolini, M Chiani, R Verdone, Performance evaluation of a Bluetooth-based WLAN adopting a polling protocol under realistic channel conditions. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks on "Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs): Standards, Research, Applications" 9(2), 141–153 (2002). PubMed Abstract | PubMed Central Full Text OpenURL

  6. O Andrisano, V Tralli, R Verdone, Millimeter waves for short-range multimedia communication systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 86(7), 1383–1401 (1998). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  7. A Conti, MZ Win, M Chiani, JH Winters, Bit error outage for diversity reception in shadowing environment. IEEE Communications Letters 7(1), 15–17 (2003). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  8. A Conti, D Dardari, G Pasolini, O Andrisano, Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11b coexistence: analytical performance evaluation in fading channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 21(2), 259–269 (2003). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  9. A Conti, D Dardari, BM Masini, G Pasolini, On Bluetooth performance with diversity reception in fading channels. Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '04), September 2004, Barcelona, Spain 2, 895–899

  10. A Soltanian, RE Van Dyck, Performance of the Bluetooth system in fading dispersive channels and interference. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '01), November 2001, San Antonio, Tex, USA 6, 3499–3503

  11. MK Simon, M-S Alouini, Digital Communication over Fading Channels: A Unified Approach to Performance Analysis, 1st edn. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA, 2000)

  12. MZ Win, JH Winters, Virtual branch analysis of symbol error probability for hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining in Rayleigh fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 49(11), 1926–1934 (2001). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  13. M-S Alouini, MK Simon, An MGF-based performance analysis of generalized selection combining over Rayleigh fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 48(3), 401–415 (2000). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  14. Y Ma, CC Chai, Unified error probability analysis for generalized selection combining in Nakagami fading channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18(11), 2198–2210 (2000). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  15. MZ Win, RK Mallik, G Chrisikos, Higher order statistics of antenna subset diversity. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2(5), 871–875 (2003). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  16. A Conti, MZ Win, M Chiani, On the inverse symbol-error probability for diversity reception. IEEE Transactions on Communications 51(5), 753–756 (2003). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  17. RK Mallik, MZ Win, Analysis of hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining in correlated Nakagami fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 50(8), 1372–1383 (2002). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  18. TS Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1996)

  19. M Gudmundson, Correlation model for shadow fading in mobile radio systems. IEE Electronics Letters 27(23), 2145–2146 (1991). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  20. V Erceg, LJ Greenstein, SY Tjandra, et al. An empirically based path loss model for wireless channels in suburban environments. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 17(7), 1205–1211 (1999). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  21. K-W Yip, T-S Ng, Impact of power control and lognormal shadowing on the mean transmit power of Bluetooth devices. IEEE Communications Letters 7(2), 58–60 (2003). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  22. GJM Janssen, PA Stigter, R Prasad, Wideband indoor channel measurements and BER analysis of frequency selective multipath channels at 2.4, 4.75, and 11.5 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Communications 44(10), 1272–1288 (1996). Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  23. JC Stein, Indoor Radio WLAN Performance Part II: Range Performance in a Dense Office Environment Harris Semiconductor, Intersil, Palm Bay, Fla, USA